Cause and Effect—Writing that analyzes why something happens or happened or what the results are of something.
Write a paragraph (300 words) or short essay (500+ words) that analyzes the causes of something OR the effects of something—not BOTH the causes and effects
Choosing a Topic: • You may choose a personal topic such as how being in the military has affected your life or why you made a certain decision. • OR: • You may choose an informative topic such as the effects of World War II or what causes acid rain. Starting with a Cause or Effect: • If you choose to examine causes of something, you are beginning with an effect and are discussing several possible reasons for this effect. For example, when discussing the causes of divorce, you are beginning with the effect, divorce, but your essay will be focused on causes of divorce. • If you choose to examine effects, you are beginning with a cause and discussing a few results of that cause. For example, when discussing the effects of stress, you are beginning with the cause, stress, but your essay will focus on what the results of stress are. Topics—Starting With a Cause A person, event, or experience that has strongly affected your life. Something that affected you as you were growing up, such as school, a place where you lived, or a group that you belonged to. A natural disaster such as earthquake, tornado, hurricane, tropical storm, forest fire, or other, especially if you were directly affected. Something that you do or would like to do that has beneficial effects such as exercise, yoga, meditation, special diet. A disability, handicap, or problem that affects you or someone you know—eating disorder, addiction, injury. A historical event or current event that caused other things to occur. Anything else that causes certain events to occur. Topics—Starting With an Effect A personal or family problem that you would like to analyze. Something that didn’t turn out the way you expected it to or wanted it to. A problem that someone you know has experienced. A current problem at your college or in your community. A national or international situation that is of interest to you. A natural occurrence that has explainable causes such as earthquakes, thunderstorms, ocean tides, etc. Any other problem or situation that you would like to analyze the causes of. Prewriting for Cause and Effect • Once you have chosen a topic, remember whether you are starting with a cause or effect. • You will then choose a partner to work with to begin discussing your topic. • If you chose to begin with a cause, you will be examining the effects of this cause, so your objective when talking with your partner will be to come up with as many effects as you can, as well as why those happen. • If you chose to begin with an effect, you will be examining reasons for or why this effect occurs. Your objective is to come up with as many possible causes. Discussing Topic Orally • Starting with a cause—begin by telling your partner a little about your topic and as many effects as you have already thought of, then your partner will ask you the following questions, putting your topic in the blank. How did ____ affect you in the past? How does___ affect you now? In what ways does ___ affect other people? Why does each of these occur? What things changed in your life because of __? What things have happened because of___? Are there any other effects? What are most significant effects?
• Starting with an Effect—tell your partner some background information about your topic, and then your partner will ask you the following questions, putting your topic in the blanks. Why do you think ___ happens or happened? Are other people or circumstances partly responsible for ___? Are there causes of ___that are out of your control? Is there an objective, scientific explanation for ___? What other problems or factors may contribute to ___? Are there any other causes that you can think of? Prewriting Activity #2 n Branching— n Write your topic in a circle in the center of a piece of paper. n If you begin with a cause, write “cause” inside the bubble with your topic as a reminder. n Then, branch out in all directions with as many possible effects as you can come up with. You may also branch out from those effects if you think of what they may lead to. n If you begin with an effect, write “effect” inside the bubble with your topic, and branch out from the circle with as many possible causes. Branch out from those causes if possible. Apostrophes n Used to show omitted letters, as in contractions. Ex: we + are=we’re Also used to show possession to minimize wordiness. Ex: “The jacket that belongs to Tony” becomes “Tony’s jacket” when using an apostrophe. Remember, you do not need an apostrophe with a possessive pronoun. Ex: The bookstore lost its lease. NOT: The bookstore lost it’s lease. Go through sentences p. 515-517
Exemplification—Using Examples to Support a General Statement
Uses of Exemplification:
Clarify a point Add interest Persuade
Your purpose for Exemplification is to write a 300-word paragraph about a person and a characteristic of this person. You will provide several examples that illustrate this person exhibiting this characteristic.
You will choose from the characteristics on p. 185-186.
Once you choose a topic, you will do the prewriting activity brainstorming/listing to come up with as many examples as you can that show the person possesses the quality you have selected. Once you have a good amount of examples, try to group the examples into categories that you can easily organize in your paragraph.
My boyfriend Tom is very irresponsible Spends too much money when we are at the mall Sometimes drinks and drives Forgot his dentist appointment three times Doesn’t pay his bills on time Forgot he had a job interview Doesn’t do his homework for his English 98 class Missed a test for his math class
Now that there are several examples to work with, what categories can each of these be grouped into?
There are three categories: Tom is irresponsible in his finances, school and appointments.
Once you have three categories or more, arrange them in a scratch outline, preferably in order of increasing importance, or emphatic order.
Example scratch outline in emphatic order:
My boyfriend Tom is very irresponsible. Finances A. Spends too much money B. Doesn’t pay bills on time. II. School A. Homework for English 98 B. Missed math test. III. Appointments A. Forgot dentist appt. 3 X B. Forgot job interview
Tips for organizing in emphatic order:
l Choose which category shows this characteristic the best. l Put that category last in outline. l Of the remaining two or three categories, what percentage each show the characteristic? l List them in lesser to greater order before the final category l What order should examples for Tom go in?
Things to remember for Exemplification:
l Must choose representative examples—those that show this person truly possesses this quality and not chance or isolated occurrence. l Choose a range of examples—from various time periods (if you have known this person for a long time) or from various aspects of this person’s life. l Choose a sufficient number of examples—enough so that you can prove your point. One or two do not show the person to truly possess this characteristic.
l Exemplification is done well only if the examples you provide are clear and specific. l Ask yourself: what daily things does this person do to exhibit this characteristic? l What recent instance of this characteristic do you recall? l Once you can think of examples, you then must clearly retell these specific examples.
Drafting l Once you have done an outline and are satisfied with it, you are ready to draft. l To draft, simply follow the outline and be specific about the examples you provide. l You are not simply creating a long list of examples but showing how these examples illustrate a certain characteristic. l Remind your readers of your purpose through transitional phrases
Transitions l Transitions for Exemplification indicate that you are moving from one example to another and one category to another. l Transitions also indicate what order you have organized your examples in Examples: l For example, for instance, specifically, in fact, in addition, one example, another example, finally l Also, you can be more specific with transitional words such as: l In addition to Tom being irresponsible in school, he also cannot manage his money. l Another instance that shows Tom’s lack of responsibility is… l The clearest indication of Tom’s irresponsibility is his forgetfulness when it comes to appointments
Analyzing and Discussing the Similarities and Differences Between Two Things
You will discuss the similarities, differences or both of two people, places, things, or experiences
lBefore you can compare and contrast two things, you must establish that they have enough similarities to warrant a comparison. lIf the two things have nothing in common, you would point out only differences, which are already obvious to your audience. lIf the two things have very few differences and you focus on similarities, you would be stating the obvious.
Purpose: lPresent clear, accurate information about both subjects (the two things you are comparing), calling attention to features that are the same or similar and features that are different. lTry to discuss both similarities and differences while emphasizing one or the other.
Choosing Your Emphasis
lDifferences may be more significant than the similarities such as when you are comparing a CD player to an MP3 player—the differences may help you decide which to buy. lSimilarities may be just as important as differences, like if you are transferring to a different college, it would be important to find one that has similar requirements to the one you are attending lYou may emphasize similarities, differences, or both.
lYou may write one paragraph, but essentially you are covering two topics, so you will probably end up writing two or three paragraphs.
Prewriting for Comparison/Contrast
lDividing and Listing works well: 1.Divide piece of paper in half lengthwise. 2.Write one subject on one side of paper 3.Write other subject on other side of paper. 4.Brainstorm with everything you can think of about one subject and write in list form under subject. 5.Try to find matching points for second subject 6.Once you have a page of listing, come up with three areas that you will discuss for both subjects. 7.Those three points of discussion will then be referred to as your points.
Topic Sentences for Comparison Contrast
Once you have divided and listed and come up with three points and decided on emphasis, you are ready to create a topic sentence lMust include: lTwo subjects (what you are comparing and contrasting) lThree points (areas you are discussing) lEmphasis (whether subjects are overall similar, different, or equal.
Evaluating Topic Sentences
1.Although Norma and Irma are twins, they’re not alike. 2.Although Norma and Irma are twins, their personalities and interests are very different. 3.Although the clarinet and saxophone are similar woodwind instruments, their different shapes and sizes create different sounds. 4.St. Bernards are a much larger breed of dogs than poodles. 5.Cordless phones are more convenient than regular phones, but they generally cost more and often have poorer quality sound. 6. Women’s fashions of the 1990’s have brought back several styles from the 1960’s
7.My two favorite restaurants are Angelo’s and Mr. J’s 8.Buy your child a hamster because hamsters are much more interesting than other pets. 9.Although IBM computers are popular for business use, they Macintosh is easier and more fun for home users to learn. 10.Type A personalities are generally aggressive and forceful, whereas Type B personalities are calmer and more relaxed. 11.Many Japanese customs and American customs are different. 12.The American bald eagle can be compared with many other endangered species whose environment is threatened.
Create your Own Topic Sentence
lUsing your dividing and listing activity as a guide, choose three areas that you will discuss for both of your subjects. lDecide whether you want to emphasize differences, similarities, or both. lPut all together in a creative topic sentence. lRemember: you must have two subjects, three points, and emphasis
Organization for Comparison Contrast
lTwo ways to organize comparison/contrast. lOne is block or subject-by-subject format—Langan refers to this method as One Side at a Time In block format, you organize your paragraph according to the two subject. 1. Discuss one subject and all areas of discussion. 2. Write transitional sentence summing up one subject and preparing readers to read about second subject. 3. Discuss second subject and areas of discussion.
Outline Using Block Format I.Topic Sentence: Dogs and cats differ in the areas of personality, maintenance, and size. II.Dogs A. Personality— B. Maintenance— C. Size III.Cats. A. Personality B. Maintenance. C. Size IV. Conclusion-sum up main points, and write concluding thought.
Important to Remember for Block
lDiscuss SAME points for both subjects. lDo not mention second subject in first part of paragraph. lMention first subject when discussing second subject only in the form of transitional phrases. lDo not introduce new information about first subject when discussing second subject lMay include both similarities and differences, but you must be clear what you are discussing through transitional phrases
lTo show difference: Unlike, whereas, dissimilar to, in contrast, different from, on the other hand (only if you use “on the one hand” first), although, even though, one difference, another difference, instead lTo show similarity: similar to, similarly, likewise, like, both, the same as, also.
Point by Point Organization Organize paragraph according to points of discussion. lDiscuss one point and how it applies to both subjects. lDiscuss second point and subjects. lDiscuss third point and subjects.
Outline Using Point-by-Point Organization
I.Topic Sentence—Dogs and Cats Differ in the areas of personality, maintenance, and size. II.Personality. A. Dogs. B. Cats III.Maintenance. A. Dogs. B. Cats. IV.Size. A. Dogs B. Cats V. Conclusion
Things to Remember Using Point-by-Point
lNot only will you use transitional words when moving from point to point, but also when moving from one subject to another while discussing that point. lIn paragraph, discuss subjects and points in the same order that they appear in topic sentence
Class Schedule *All scheduled tasks may change according to time or other constraints
9/4: Introduction, go over syllabus, interview each other; in-class writing, discuss writing process; introduction to narration, prewriting for narration HW: Read Skills 3-34, 203-205, 451-454; complete review test p. 453-4 choose topic for narration (topics p. 215, 217—writing assignment 1 or 2) and complete 10-minute freewrite
9/6: Discuss writing process, subject-verb identification, parts of speech HW: Read Skills 35-50; complete activities 7, 9 p. 38-41, Read 206-221, 118-119; choose details for narration paragraph, and create outline.
Journal Assignment: Write a page about what your goals are for this class. What do you plan to achieve, and how will what you achieve affect your future as a college student?
9/13: Workshop, discuss topic sentences for narration, create topic sentences in pairs; discuss fragments HW: Read Skills 67-77, 243-249; complete activities 10-14 p 67-70; revise narration Journal Assignment: Write a page detailing your proudest victories and/or your greatest strengths. INCLUDE AT LEAST FIVE COMPOUND SENTENCES.
9/18: NARRATION PARAGRAPHS DUE; introduce process HW: Read Skills 79-88, 250-263; complete activities 1-2 p. 82-86 (where it states to underline, list the answers on a piece of paper ); choose topic for process paragraph and complete listing prewriting activity
9/20: Quiz, go over activities HW: Read Skills 89-104, 119-121 complete activities 5-9; draft process paragraph Journal Assignment: Interview the most positive person you know, and write a page describing this person’s “secret” for being so positive. Include at least three complex sentences.
9/27: PROCESS PARAGRAPHS DUE, Quiz, discuss description (topics p. 193-194), run-ons HW: choose topic for description and complete 10-minute freewrite; read Skills 113-118, complete activities 5-7, read Skills 482-491, 185-201 Journal Assignment: Interview an instructor. Ask the instructor five questions related to the class he/she teaches, and ask five personal questions such as hobbies, goals, etc.
10/2: Continue description, go over activities, discuss verbs HW: choose details for description and create rough draft; read Skills 122-132, complete activities 10-11 and Review Tests 1 and 5.; read Skills 516-521
10/4: Quiz, workshop; continue description; discuss adjectives and adverbs HW: Revise description paragraph. Read Skills 133-143; complete Review Tests 8-10 p. 134-136, Read Skills 492-497, 287-295 Journal Assignment: Visualize your greatest goals and dreams in college and in life, and write a page describing that vision.
10/9: DESCRIPTION PARAGRAPHS DUE; begin comparison contrast (topics p. 303), discuss subject-verb agreement HW: Choose topic for comparison contrast and do dividing and listing activity; Read Skills 144-154, 296-302, 498-508, complete Activities 1-3 p 504-507 10/11: Quiz, Continue comparison contrast, discuss organization; review for mid term HW: Create outline for comparison contrast. Read Skills 155-166; complete activities 9- 11 p. 154-161; Read Skills 303-310, 509-515
Journal Assignment: Read Skills 723-725, complete Comprehension 1-10 (726), and Critical Reading and Discussion 1, 3 (727) Week 10
11/6: EXAMPLE PARAGRAPHS DUE, begin cause and effect, discuss commas HW: Read Skills 274-286, 575-579; choose topic for cause and effect paragraph and create clustering prewriting activity with topic as both cause and effect
11/8: Quiz, continue cause and effect--outlining, discuss punctuation HW: Draft Cause and Effect, Read Skills 580-596; complete activity 1, Review Tests 1-2 Journal Assignment: Read Skills 743-746 Complete Comprehension 1-10, Critical Reading and Discussion 1-2
11/13: Workshop, discuss homonyms HW: Revise cause and effect, Read Skills 349-356, 597-603
11/15: Workshop, Quiz, begin argument, discuss effective word choice HW: choose topic for argument, and do two prewriting activities of your choice; read Skills 357-372 Journal Assignment: Read Skills 750-757; answer comprehension questions 1-10, Critical Reading and Discussion questions 1, 3. Week 12
11/20: CAUSE AND EFFECT PARAGRAPHS DUE, continue argument HW: Create outline of argument essay; Complete editing tests 1-3 p. 606-608
11/22: NO CLASS HW: Draft argument essay; Complete editing tests 4-8 p. 609-613 Journal Assignment: Read Skills 761-763, Complete Comprehension 1-10, Critical Reading and Discussion 1, 4
Cuyamaca College English 98 Fall 2007 Section: Class Time: T Th . 4-6:10 p.m. Class Room: Instructor: Swan Ashby Instructor email: firstname.lastname@example.org Instructor phone number: Instructor mailbox:
Required Text: Langan, John. English Skills with Readings. 7th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2006.
Required Materials: Stapler Collegiate dictionary and thesaurus Writing journal college ruled minimum size 8X11 Floppy disk or flash drive Access to a computer or word processor
Course Description: English 98 is an introduction to the writing process. You will study grammar, punctuation, and standard written English usage. You will learn basic sentence patterns to compose paragraphs and one multi-paragraph essay.
In this class, you will:
· Learn, recognize and practice the parts of speech · Recognize and spell basic and challenging words · Recognize and correct sentences containing errors in basic English grammar · Write coherent (logical) simple, compound and complex sentences · Recognize and correct fragments, fused sentences (run-on) and comma splices · Recognize and correct errors in basic punctuation · Relate the elements of grammar and punctuation review to the editing of written work · Write simple paragraphs which include a topic sentence, organization, support, and conclusion. · Learn and demonstrate the phases in the writing process · Learn skills to write in an in-class setting · Discuss and analyze selected reading assignments
Six 200-word paragraphs One 750 word, multi-paragraph essay One writing journal Various homework assignments based on reading or writing exercises Various quizzes on readings, grammar, writing process, etc. One Mid Term exam One Final Exam Class Participation Grade Break Down:
Paragraphs……………….30% (5% each) Final Essay………………20% Writing Journal………….10% Homework……………….10% Quizzes…………………..10% Mid Term………………….5% Final……………………….5% Class Participation……….10% Course Policies: Attendance: Attendance and participation are mandatory and create an optimum learning environment. If you accumulate more than three unexcused absences, or if your absences are so excessive that I think you won’t be able to pass the course with a ‘C’ or better, I have the option to drop you from the class. If you arrive significantly late or leave early, you disrupt the class, and you will receive partial or full absences. If you miss a class, it is your responsibility to find out what was covered the missed class meeting. Often, class meeting topics are on the class schedule, but you should exchange contact information with at least two classmates in order to ensure that you do not miss any work or pertinent material. If you know ahead of time that you will not be in class, notify me by phone or email—the notification does not mean that you will be allowed to make up work; it simply means that you are a conscientious student.
Late/Make up work: Homework and essays are collected at the BEGINNING of each class session. Assignments turned in at the end of a class session will not be accepted. NO late work will be accepted without a documented emergency excuse. If you are absent the day an assignment is due, you must turn in the assignment to my mailbox the SAME day by the time the 100 Building closes. If you have a documented medical or other emergency excuse, I will accept the assignment when you return.
Journals: Journals are your responsibility to keep up with. Each journal assignment can be found on the class schedule. Each journal assignment should be minimum ONE FULL page. If you do not fill the ENTIRE page of the journal, or if your writing is very large, you will not get full credit for the journal entry. Journals will be collected TWICE per semester.
Paragraph Revision You will have the opportunity to revise each essay/paragraph handed in. I will return the paragraph/essay to you with a grade and comments that show where improvements could be made. If you are unsatisfied with your grade, you can revise the essay to try to improve your grade. Revisions will be due one week from the date the essay/paragraph is returned to you. Revision does not guarantee that your grade will improve. If you simply make changes where my comments are, you have not gone through the revision process, which involves making significant improvements, not simple editing. If your essay/paragraph does not meet the minimum page/length requirements, you will not be allowed to revise your essay, and you must accept the first grade given.
No cell phone use or ringing. This includes text messaging. If I see you text messaging or looking at your phone or any other electronic device during class, I will confiscate the device until the end of class. If you do not surrender the device, I will ask you to leave. If I repeatedly have to ask you to leave electronic devices alone during class, I will suspend you from a class meeting. Come to class prepared. Preparation means that you have completely read the reading assignment and are ready to participate in a discussion of the reading. Work cooperatively with other students. You will be asked to read classmates’ writing. Your comments should be productive and relevant. Blatantly attacking a classmate’s essay is not productive and is not allowed. Be an active student, and take responsibility for your own learning. During discussion and group work, one person may speak at a time. You are expected to listen attentively and refrain from conversation while another person is speaking. Treat classmates and instructor with respect. If I repeatedly have to ask you to stop having side conversations during class time, I will ask you to leave for one or more class meetings. You are expected to refrain from behavior that interferes with other students’ learning and to respect and obey standards of student conduct while in class. Offensive, homophobic, sexist, racist, or anti-religious language will not be tolerated.
Academic Integrity: Cheating and plagiarism (using as one’s own ideas, writings or materials of someone else without acknowledgement or permission) can result in any one of a variety of sanctions. Such penalties may range from an adjusted grade on the particular exam, essay, project, or assignment to a failing grade in the course. I may also suspend an offending student for the class meeting when the infraction occurs, as well as the next class meeting. For further clarification and information on these issues, please consult with me or contact the Assistant Dean of Student Affairs.
Accommodations for Students with Disabilities: Students with disabilities who may need accommodations in this class are encouraged to notify me and contact Disabled Student Services and Programs (DSP&S) early in the semester so that reasonable accommodations may be implemented as soon as possible.